Biodiversity Conservation

Biodiversity Conservation

Lisa Henriques

 

The world’s ecosystems are a result of biodiversity. Biodiversity conservation responsibility must be observed in order to achieve the favorable state and the maintenance of our ecosystem.

The implementation of Natura 2000 in the European Union Territory follows measures directly related with shared attributions introduced by the Lisbon Treaty, Environmental Law and rural development policies aimed at fighting biodiversity loss.

Focusing on Directives Habitats[1] and Birds[2], Environmental Shared Policy subsidiary legal instruments to manage territory and population and rule the Natura 2000 Network[3], with the designation of the areas of special protection and common interest (1992-2005) to definition of implementation and management FEADER in accordance to European Policy strategic guidelines.

Financing Natura 2000 to implement species and natural habitats conservation.

In April 1979 with the Directive of Wild Birds protection. In May 1992 with the creation of the Protected areas Network Natura 2000, special protection areas for the conservation of the 182[4] species and sub species of birds and migrating birds, special conservation areas for 253 different habitats, 200 species, animals and 434 species, plants[5] with the objective of keeping or restore the habitats and species considered threatened in the European scale. There is not a complete study for each member state.

The economic benefits and services associated with the Natura2000 measures would benefit biodiversity conservation.

There are three financing options: use the Agriculture Policy funds Life Nature, further strengthen Life Natura considering the needs or create a new instrument for financing Natura 2000.

The level of rural development has impact in the priorities and choices of member states of European Union, I would like to underline the part of agro environmental measures and cross compliance has an answer to difficulties that we find in rural development in some member states, for sustainable development stated at the action program for the environment and execution of the community strategy concerning biologic diversity including applying the directives related to nature conservation – Natura 2000.

Considering the three main axes of rural development, rural and forest competitive growth, improvement of the environment and rural landscape, the quality of life in rural areas and diversity of rural economy, the environment is not a priority for public opinion, there is an institutional difficulty in the implementation of the Natura 2000 measures, specifically the measures from the Council Regulation[6] and its degree of relevance for the environment.

There is not an investment in the environment axis and enough funds for the areas with more biodiversity conservation needs.

Public goods are characterized has nonexclusive and non-rival which cannot be kept trough markets because there is no incentive for paying for public goods which leads to exploitation. Farmers have few incentives to safeguard.

Considering the 27 member states of European Union the priority that each one gave to the implementation of Natura 2000, DGAA UE 2009.

Alarmingly biodiversity conservation is not being considered, Nordic States give priority to the environment, following GDP Mediterranean and New States have given less relevance implementing this measures and there is no institutional implementation of environmental measures and Natura2000 related measures in particular.

[1] Directive 92/43/CEE from the Council 21 May 1992

[2] Directives 2009/147/EC from Council 30 November 2009

[3] Article 249 European Community Treaty, article 288 European Union Functioning Treaty

[4] Annex I of Directive Birds

[5] Annexes of Directive Habitats

[6] Articles 19, 21, 27, 37, 38, 41, 42, 43, 46, 47, 49, 50, 55, 57, 58, 59